The Mysterious History of Stonehenge – What We Don’t Know & The Facts We Do

The Mysterious History of Stonehenge – What We Don’t Know & The Facts We Do

The Making of a Mystery – What Is Stonehenge?

One of the most talked about mysteries in the modern world, guests to Stonehenge were once given chisels on entry so they could chip off a souvenir to go home with. Today the stones are much more heavily protected, and rightly so, as they really are amazing.

Why Was Stonehenge Built and What Was It Used For?

Stonehenge Theories

The mystery of Stonehenge has the world’s most learned historians, archaeologists and geologists scratching their heads. Supporting the theory that the stones are a celebration of the sun and seasons, it’s possible that it was put where it is because it’s ideally positioned for long views in all directions, perfect for utilising the sun.

There are many theories on its the original purpose, and no conclusive evidence to prove any of them. Older than the Pyramids in Egypt, it is thought of as one of the most versatile ancient monuments.

Sunset over Stonehenge

A finalist in the race to become a modern wonder of the world, the theories about Stonehenge include; an ancient burial ground, a place to study the movements of the moon and sun, a place of pagan sacrifice or conversely, a place for healing.  One interesting theory that there is a shred of proof for is that Stonehenge was some sort of ancient almanac as the stones indicate a 365.25 calendar, in keeping with the earths rotation around the sun.

No one is really sure, but what is certain is that it was an immensely important place of huge significance to the people that built it 5,000 years ago. This is evident in just how much effort and human struggle went in to actually constructing Stonehenge.

How Was Stonehenge Built And Where Is It?

Wizards and Magic and Druids?

It’s impossible to tell from the many, many photos where Stonehenge is. Standing strong and alone on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, some theories about the geographical significance of the plot include; the combining of the welsh blue stones and the sarsen stones from the more local area, represent a symbolic political union of two different groups at the spot directly between their spheres of influence. Another theory is that Salisbury Plain was chosen for it’s flatness and therefore its ability to let the sunlight in to the stones.

An intriguing idea but sadly, not true. Historic peddler of fables and King Arthur enthusiast Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his book, brazenly entitled The History of the Kings of Britain, in 1136 in which he states that druids and magic were responsible for Stonehenge, an idea that was believed as fact up until the late Tudor period in the 17th century.

Aerial view of Stonehenge

According to Geoffrey’s ‘history’, the stones were brought from Africa to Ireland for their healing properties, by giants. The stones were then flown, yes flown, over to Salisbury by Merlin, the wizard and companion to Arthur to make a monument to commemorate a group of nobles killed in battle by the Saxons.

Old Geoff’s book was not only widely popular and published in many languages but also taken as undeniable, unequivocal fact. This popular paradigm of magic and druids associated with Stonehenge survived for nearly 600 years in to the 17th century when people began to question his theories of myth and magic. Even as late as the 1932 Geoffrey of Monmouth’s powerfully popular ideal was being used as a basis of investigation when the News Chronicle paper published this headline with an alarming amount of confidence;

The Man Who Built Stonehenge Archaeologist’s Startling New
Theory
Merlin, The Egyptian Wizard

Although the theory of Stonehenge being built by giants and flown around by Merlin was beginning to be questioned by the 17th century, druids still played a popular part in its mystery. Influential theorists like 17th century John Aubrey and 18th century William Stukeley are largely responsible for the idea that druids built it and arguably, the ambiguity that still very much surrounds Stonehenge means even disproved antiquated theories still have followers.

Aliens Built Stonehenge

As with anything that goes unexplained in this world, wait too long to find a solid conclusion and that special group of people will try and push forward their supernatural agendas. A one Erich von Däniken published Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past in 1968, a book which suggests that ancient religions and technologies were given to ancient civilisations by primordial alien astronauts, revered as gods. Any one seen Prometheus?

Stonehenge at sunset

This printed supernatural solution encouraged exophiles in to the belief that Stonehenge was created through supernatural means, and of course spooky sightings began to be recorded among the stones. Von Däniken also gives alien gods credit for the Pyramids, and the Easter Island Moai heads among other things. It’s like the man had no faith in human accomplishment.

Sightings of UFO’s have also been regularly reported around the stones. The area is often called a ‘magnet’ for supernatural activity by those who believe in Ley Lines, lines that cross the globe that carry supernatural energy between monuments and natural land forms. Despite this the UK Government Ministry of Defence closed its UFO desk in 2009 (yep it had one) because it was “consuming increasing resource, but produces no valuable defence output”.

What could possibly be more plausible than giants, wizards and aliens?

How Did Stonehenge Actually Get There?

With some serious human effort. The sarsen stones are the iconic pillars that line the circumference of the circle, made from sandstone over 60 million years old, and weigh around 25 tonnes, about four elephants or a quarter of blue whale, just saying. And all this before the invention of the wheel. Built in stages, the final incarnation is what we see standing today. The sarsen stones are thought to have been found 25 miles north of Salisbury Plain, and transported with the help of sledges and ropes. The smaller ‘blue’ stones however, have been traced all the way to the Preseli Hills in north Wales, 200 miles away from Wiltshire.

Aerial view of Stonehenge

Aerial view of Stonehenge

How did Neolithic people, with rudimentary tools and no technology transport 4 tonne boulders such a distance?

Some historians think the stones were moved using sledges and rollers made out of logs and transferred on to rafts and floated down the river. More recently it’s though that the builders used supersized wicker baskets, a combination of ball bearings, long grooved planks and teams of oxen.

The Stonehenge Summer and Winter Solstice

Druids

Although historians are pretty sure that Druids had very little to do with Stonehenge thousands of years ago, today, modern day self-proclaimed druids flock to Stonehenge to harness the energy of the Sun every winter and summer for the Solstices.

On the 20th June every summer, thousands of people from around the world will descend on Stonehenge. They’ll watch the longest summer sun rise out of Salisbury Plain and rest perfectly between the stones, filling them with golden light before rising into the sky. The placement of the stones perfectly catches the sunlight, so much so, that for centuries some visitors and scientists have believed the theory that Stonehenge is significant because of its position when it comes to the sun.

Summer solstice

Summer solstice

As mentioned above, although no evidence that the druids had anything to do with Stonehenge actually exists, Stukeley and Aubrey’s theories have been hard to shake, and people continue to visit in the high summer to do yoga, meditate and more provocative activities around the stones.

Almost certainly to do with the weather, more people visit Stonehenge on the summer solstice rather than the winter solstice on 22nd December. A December chill isn’t really conducive to taking your clothes off and running around naked now, is it?

However, the winter solstice is thought to be far more important. Heather Sebire, the English Heritage senior curator at Stonehenge, says that the stones are actually far better aligned to frame the winter solstice sun, and scientists agree that the monument is more directly facing the view during the winter sunset.

Despite the lack of technology and science at the time, Neolithic farmers and builders would have known that the winter solstice was the shortest day of the year. They would have also known that short days are gone and roll on summer nights. Things were going to get better, life would get easier and they could think about sowing their next batch of crops. So, a good reason to celebrate and give thanks for the warmer weather to come.

Stonehenge in Winter

Stonehenge in Winter

Stonehenge Tours

Want to try and figure out the mystery for yourself? It may not come as a surprise to you but we would recommend a tour! We offer a range of Stonehenge tours to suit all temperaments and our experienced guides will let you in to all the secrets of the stones as well as even more history. Make up your own mind about the mystifying monolith and see why this sacred monument is still so popular throughout the globe.